Note that the title is not italicized if the video is part of a larger work e. Order: author s , date of publication, article title not in italics , magazine name in italics , volume number in italics , issue number, and the page number range of the article. An online magazine article is referenced like a print magazine article see above , but the page range at the end is replaced with the article URL.
The domino effect. The Economist. The earlier 5th edition of APA formats this differently. See 5th vs. An online newspaper article is referenced like a print newspaper article see above , but the page number at the end is replaced with the article URL. Government urged to act on child poverty.
New Zealand Herald.
APA Style: Theses
If a conference paper has been formally published, it is referenced like a chapter in an edited book. Bowker, N. Users with disabilities' social and economic development through online access. Boumedine Ed. If it has not been published in book form, the publication details contain the name of the organisation convening the conference if any or the name of the conference itself.
Stewart-Withers, R. A thesis or dissertation that is only available in print form from the author's university is considered unpublished. Order: author, date of publication, thesis title in italics , university of publication, publication location. What it means to be online for people with disabilities Unpublished doctoral dissertation. A thesis or dissertation that is available in an online database from the author's university follows a different format.
Order: author, date of publication, thesis title in italics , university of publication and location in brackets; university and location are unnecessary for American theses , database URL.
Mason, R. In Britannica encyclopedia of world religions pp. If there is an identified author their name should be used. Dimad, R. Game theory.
In New dictionary of the history of ideas Vol. APA does not prescribe a specific format for study guides, so they should be treated like books , online books , or chapters in an edited book. Generally, it is a good idea to check with your lecturer about how they would like course material referenced. If a single author is listed, use their name. Otherwise, use the name of the school or institute in the author position see group authors :.
Smith, A. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author. Sometimes, however, study guides are written by many different authors with editors, in which case they should be treated like a chapter in an edited book. Jackson, K. The anger and pain of tertiary studies. Smith Ed. Caution: Many lecturers prefer you to go outside academic sources rather than just relying on their own wording and ideas. Doing research demonstrates that you can explore the topic outside the boundaries of the course materials. Many courses at Massey University use a book of readings, which is a collection of photocopied journal articles, book chapters, and other relevant material.
Because the sections are direct photocopies, the original source is referenced rather than the book of readings. If you're not sure what the original source was, see what type of source is this? In the in-text citation, cite the original source's author and date of publication. If you are giving a page number, use the page number of the original source, not the page number of the book of readings. The format described here is sufficient in most papers:. Resource Management Act, No. If you are studying a law paper, more detailed formats are described at the page on legal citations.
Grey literature is a type of material produced by government departments, corporations, and other organisations that has not been published in book or journal form. It includes technical and research reports, annual reports, brochures and fact sheets, press releases, and white papers. Sometimes, particularly with government materials such as government reports , it can be difficult to determine who the author is, as often the author is an organisation , or government ministry rather than an individual.
Often with government publications, the author is cited in the first few pages of the publication rather than on the website. If no specific author is given, then cite the ministry or department responsible for posting the report or publication. Grey literature often has identical organisational author and publisher. If this is the case, "author" is written after the place of publication to avoid duplication. See identical author and publisher for details. Ministry of Health.
Living well with diabetes: A plan for people at high risk of or living with diabetes. Technical and research reports often come with a number; if this is the case, put it in brackets after the title:. Cuisick, G.
3 Ways to Cite a Dissertation in APA - wikiHow
Offending during late adolescence: How do youth aging out of care compare with their peers? Issue Brief No.
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For types of grey literature aside from reports, the specific type of material is added in square brackets after the title: [Brochure], [Fact sheet], [Press release], [White paper]. Interviews that you have conducted yourself are considered personal communications. If a source does not match any of these types, it may be necessary to choose a format that most closely matches one of the other types.
The APA blog calls this a Frankenreference. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington, DC: Author. These pages are provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. Have a study or assignment writing question? Alumni Merchandise Chapters Benefits more News Latest releases Research news University news more Events and key dates Albany campus Manawatu campus Wellington campus more American Nurses Association.
Nursing: Scope and standards of practice 2nd ed. Silver Spring, MD: Author. In instances where the publisher is the same as the author, as with the APA manual, use the term Author for the publisher instead of repeating the name.
Lencioni, P. The advantage: Why organizational health trumps everything else in business [Kindle version]. For e-books, include information on the version in square brackets Kindle, Adobe Digital Editions, etc.
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Poe, M. Reframing race in teaching writing across the curriculum. Young Eds. Always include the page numbers of the chapter in parentheses after the book title.
Article (With URL)
The page range should not be italicized. Christensen, L. For my people: Celebrating community through poetry. Bigelow, B. Harvey, S. Miller Eds. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools. Also include volume number and edition numbers in the parenthetical information after the book title where relevant. Kirwan, J. An experimental study of the effects of small-group, face-to-face facilitated dialogues on the development of self-actualization levels: A movement towards fully functional persons Doctoral dissertation.